Cleve P.T. 1883: Vega-ekspeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser 3: 455-517 [details]
context source (Deepsea)
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), available online at http://www.iobis.org/ [details]
context source (HKRMS)
Lam CWY. & Ho KC. (1988). Phytoplankton characteristics of Tolo Harbour. In: Morton B, editor. Asian Marine Biology 6. pp 5-18. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. [details]
context source (Schelde)
MWTL biological monitoring network Westerschelde: Phytoplankton [MWTL biologisch monitoring netwerk Westerschelde: Fytoplankton] [details]
basis of record
M'harzi, A. (1999). Phytoplankton community structuring in some areas of the North Sea. PhD Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel: Brussel, Belgium. 221 pp. (look up in IMIS) [details]
Tomas, C.R. (Ed.). (1997). Identifying marine phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, CA [etc.] (USA). ISBN 0-12-693018-X. XV, 858 pp., available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780126930184 [details]
Lundholm N., Skov, J., Pocklington R. & Moestrup Ø. 1994. Domoic acid, the amino acid responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning, now in <i>Pseudo-nitzschia seriata</i> (Bacillariophyceae) in Europe. Phycologia 33: 475-478. [details]
Krayesky, D. M.; Meave, D. C.; Zamudio, E.; Norris, E.; Fredericq, S.; Tunnell, J. (2009). Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico. <em>Gulf of Mexico origin, waters, and biota.</em> 1: 155-186. [details] Available for editors [request]
Moestrup, Ø., Akselman, R., Cronberg, G., Elbraechter, M., Fraga, S., Halim, Y., Hansen, G., Hoppenrath, M., Larsen, J., Lundholm, N., Nguyen, L. N., Zingone, A. (Eds) (2009 onwards). IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Micro Algae., available online at http://www.marinespecies.org/HAB [details]
Liu, J.Y. [Ruiyu] (ed.). (2008). Checklist of marine biota of China seas. <em>China Science Press.</em> 1267 pp. (look up in IMIS) [details] Available for editors [request]
Harper, M.A.; Cassie Cooper, V.; Chang, F.H.; Nelson, W.A.; Broady, P.A. (2012). Phylum Ochrophyta: brown and golden-brown algae, diatoms, silicoflagellates, and kin, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2012). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 3. Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi. pp. 114-163. [details]
Hasle, G. R. (1965). Nitzschia and Fragilariopsis species studied in the light and electron microscopes. II. The group Pseudonitzschia. <em>Skrifter utgitt av Det norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. Mat.-Naturv. Klasse, Ny serie.</em> vol 18, 45pp. [details]
new combination reference
Peragallo H. & Peragallo M. 1897-1908. Diatomées de France (Ed. by M.J. Tempère). Micrographe-Editeur, Grez-sur-Loing, 2, 492 pp.
From regional or thematic species database
Distribution P. seriata is a cold-water species. Previously known only from the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic, but recently also from the Northern Pacific. Recently, it was reported from the Southern cold Pacific. Due to morphological variability of P. seriata and related species, this needs to be confirmed either by molecular data. [details]
Harmful effect P. seriata has been implicated in toxic episodes in the field in Europe (Denmark, Ireland, Scotland) and Canada. It has caused DA in sea scallops and molluscan shellfish in Canada, in blue mussels in Denmark, and associated with DA in king scallops in Scotland.
DA levels above the regularory limit (20µm g-1) has been found at concentrations of 50-62,000 cells L-1 in Canada and Denmark. [details]
Identification requires electron microscopy.
The main characteristics of P. seriata are the asymmetric valve and the 4 rows of poroids (2 outer rows of larger poroids and 2 inner rows of smaller poroids).
P. seriata is phylogenetically and morphologically closely related to P. obtusa and P. australis, two other species with asymmetric valves. The main differences are the number of poroid rows in the striae, poroid density, and valve width. However, in P. seriata number of poroid rows and poroid density has been found to decrease with increasing temperature, making identification difficult.
P. seriata: (2)-4 rows - 6-9 poroids/µm - 4.6-8.0µm
P. obtusa: 2 rows - 6-8 poroids/µm - 2.9-5.0µm
P. australis: 2 rows - 4-5 poroids/µm - 6.5-8.0µm
Verified sequences of ITS rDNA (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) are:
P. seriata (DQ062663); P. obtusa (DQ062667); P. australis (DQ062661)
Toxicology Strains of the species have been confirmed to produce domoic acid (DA) in cultures from the cold temperate Northern Atlantic and Northern Arctic. Some strains have in addition to DA been shown to produce the two isomers isodomoic acid A (IA) and isodomoic acid B (IB) (Hansen et al. 2011). DA have so far been found to make up the largest proportion of the toxins. DA production in cultures have been found to vary from 0.16 pg cell-1 to 33.6 pg cell-1.